Download A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last PDF
By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are continually altering. normal through the international, this e-book will proceed to function the normal English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and lots of from comparable fields resembling biostatistics, infectious sickness regulate, well-being promoting, genetics, medical epidemiology, future health economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's house for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of significant phrases. backed by means of the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of varied nations. all of the definitions have been reviewed many times through a global community of participants from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with out being authoritarian. The Fourth version comprises good over one hundred fifty new entries and huge revisions of concerning the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a few of the new phrases relate to tools utilized in environmental and scientific epidemiology.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
Observations with unknown values from one end of a frequency distribution, occurring beyond a measurement threshold. Left-censored data come from the left-hand, or low end and right-censored data come from the right-hand, or high end, of the distribution. CENSUS An enumeration of a population, originally intended for purposes of taxation and military service. Ancient civilizations such as the Romans conducted censuses; Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem because Mary and Joseph had gone there to be counted in a Roman census.
A positive causal relationship has been established between exposure and occurrence of cancer. 2. Limited evidence. A positive association has been observed between exposure to the agent and cancer, for which a causal interpretation is credible, but chance, bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. 3. Inadequate evidence. Available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency, or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of a causal relationship. 4. Evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity.
See also ZERO TIME SHIFT. LENGTH See LENGTH BIAS. MEASUREMENT See MEASUREMENT BIAS. OBSERVER See OBSERVER BIAS. See also OBSERVER VARIATION. RECALL See RECALL BIAS. BIAS, BIAS, BIAS, BIAS, REPORTING See REPORTING BIAS. RESPONSE See RESPONSE BIAS. SAMPLING See SAMPLING BIAS. SELECTION See SELECTION BIAS. BIAS, WORKUP See WORKUP BIAS. BIAS DUE TO CONFOUNDING See CONFOUNDING. BIAS DUE TO DIGIT PREFERENCE See DIGIT PREFERENCE. BIAS DUE TO INSTRUMENTAL ERROR Systematic error due to faulty calibration, inaccurate measuring instruments, contaminated reagents, incorrect dilution or mixing of reagents, etc.