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By A. Munro-Kua

Socio-economic and political concerns are handled selectively inside a chronological historic framework, overlaying the dramatic colonial effect of 1940-60 until eventually the current day. The nation is tested from the viewpoint of social type in addition to communalism, to provide an explanation for the dominance of the ruling coalition over the 37 years in view that independence. the writer argues that authoritarian-populism is the idea that most closely fits the plain paradox of a permanent regime through the poll field, and the huge regulations at the scope of democracy, really in the course of the repressive equipment of detention with out trial. The underlying subject matter is a critique and rationalization of Malaysia's human rights checklist.

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18 As we have emphasized, the extent of the geographical and sectoral separation was to be significant as a foundation for future communal strategy, both between the different non-Malay communities but more importantly also between the Malay peasantry and the workers. The impact of the colonial economy on the various levels of the predominantly non-Malay bourgeoisie was specific to each community as well as to class. The English-educated comprador Chinese bourgeoisie were able to extend their merchant capital activities to the export of raw materials and import of British manufactured goods.

10 From then on, efforts were made to alleviate poverty by raising rural productivity and thus rural incomes. Land development-settler schemes in rubber and oil palm, irrigation projects in rice-growing areas were launched and new institutions were created to implement these plans. 11 These development strategies reflected the prevailing landed aristocratic interests of the state by sidestepping the question of land reform. Green revolution technology to increase productivity and the capital intensive The Post-Colonial State 29 method of opening up virgin land for settlement did not address the root cause of rural social inequalities, which, for the peasantry, lay in access to land.

The response of the British Military Administration (BMA) was to break the strikes through a variety of means, including Japanese POWs, British troops and the use of Malays as replacement workers. Opposition newspapers were closed down and their editors charged with sedition. However, the colonial administration was unable to ban unions because of the 1940 Ordinance and the risk of international condemnation. THE EMERGENCY: PRECEDENT FOR AUTHORITARIANISM On the political front and with an eye to the future, the British were faced with the problem of how to ensure a viable and stable post-colonial political arrangement.

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