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By Mario A. Maggioni
Across a line drawn from manhattan to la, the extent of cconomi
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Extra info for Clustering Dynamics and the Location of High-Tech-Firms
29 Italy Optical and photo. 30 Italy Aerospace spatial COTe (establishments) Chapter 2 - What do we know about the clustering of high-tech firms? 18. 76% Contrary to the common wisdom of the US being the most specialised country in high-tech sectors, France appears to have the highest ratios of high-tech establishments and employment7 8 . The US follows shortly behind France when employment is considered, but the UK gets into the second position as far as the number of establishments is concerned.
It is thus becoming more and more difficult to empirically distinguish between spontaneous and artificial clusters42 . 2 is devoted to a detailed presentation of the results obtained by the author using an original database for studying the geographical localisation of high-tech industry in four major industrialised countries (USA, UK, France, and Italy43). The analysis is conducted in such a way as to identify the major high-tech clusters and to empirically demonstrate that high-tech firms do cluster.
The top position in almost every high-tech sectors is usually occupied by Greater London50 , the exception being (when the measured variable is employment) Kent for Pharmaceuticals, Hertfordshire for Computers, Strathclyde for Electronic components and Optical and photographic equipment, West Midlands for Industrial process control instruments and Lancashire for Aerospace industry. The metropolitan areas of London, Manchester and Birmingham51 , being the larger cities in the country, are often in the top positions as far as the number of firms is concerned.