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Download Column Handbook for Size Exclusion Chromatogrаphy by Wu PDF

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A strategy for equivalence must recognise the distinction between average and societal risk. Calculations of equivalence are therefore neither simple nor easy to quantify; and for this reason, they are not normally explicitly incorporated in the legislative framework. The only one in common use in many national guidance documents is the relationship between increased compartment size where sprinklers are fitted in certain building types, as discussed in Chapter 5. Much of the current building legislation is couched in terms of what is “adequate” or “reasonable” however; these terms are not defined except by reference to guidance documents which set out performance or prescriptive standards for how different tactics or components must be designed.

Light is unlikely to be a danger, but the other two products, heat and smoke, are both particularly dangerous and must be designed against. 3 Heat Smoke damage to a building can be severe, but it rarely causes total collapse; however, extreme heat can completely destroy a building. Steel will have lost two-thirds of its strength by the time it has been heated to around 600°C, a by no means uncommon temperature in a domestic fire. Concrete is a more resistant material; but as reinforced concrete depends on steel for its tensile strength, there needs to be sufficient insulation of the steel to prevent it reaching its critical temperature.

In most buildings it is impossible to calculate accurately the rate of smoke production because of the large number of variables, and it is sufficient for the architect to realise that the larger the fire (and the larger its perimeter), then the greater the rate of smoke production. Sprinkler (more formally auto-suppression) systems are normally designed to limit a fire to a 9 m2 area (a roughly 12m perimeter), and therefore in calculating smoke production from fires in sprinklered buildings, it is assumed that this represents the largest probable fire area, at least until the sprinklers fail.

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