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This quantity includes the simplest papers offered on the 2d ECCOMAS foreign convention on Multiscale Computations for Solids and Fluids, held June 10-12, 2015.

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Today, while cities cover large parts of the land area, it is necessary to know their albedo. However, the semi-regular structure of cities gives highly variable albedo. The relationship between apparently light and dark surfaces also depends on building height and density of the neighborhood. Another characteristic of urban settings, due to the fact that cities are relatively low and very spread out, is that what we can see from a given point is very variable. From a window on a ground floor, the view can be limited to only two surfaces: the street and the facing wall.

This light is the first to reach parts of the ground from where the sky is not visible. Two reflections are therefore needed to get a realistic rendering of an interior space in natural light. But what happens in an outdoor scene? In an urban scene, because we can almost always see a bit of the sky, the second reflection does not represent a substantial change in the results, and the following ones can be ignored (except in very specific configurations, as for example the entrance of a tunnel).

CMC: Computers, Materials, & Continua, 2012, 32 (2), pp. 107–132. 2. Arvo JR (1993) Linear Operators and Integral Equations in Global Illumination. In: Global Illumination, SIGGRAPH ‘93 Course Notes, vol 42, August. 3. Ashdown I (2002) Radiative Transfer Networks Revisited. Journal of the illuminating Engineering Society pages 38–51 Vol. 31, Issue 2. 4. Beckers B (2009) Geometrical interpretation of sky light in architecture projects. In: Actes de la Conférence Internationale Scientifique pour le BATiment CISBAT, September EPFL, Lausanne, Suisse.