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Download Corrosion Issues in Light Water Reactors: Stress Corrosion by D Fron PDF

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Additional info for Corrosion Issues in Light Water Reactors: Stress Corrosion Cracking (EFC51)

Example text

The results, shown in Fig. 4, demonstrated the gradual decrease of the corrosion potential along the flow direction. During conditions with a low hydrogen addition the in-pipe potential is about 200 mV that is the same as for NWC. In a high flow autoclave close to the reactor piping a potential of about 0 mV was measured and for more remote systems even lower potentials were obtained. After such and similar efforts it was understood that HWC corrosion potentials must be measured in-pipe. In Sweden all plants on HWC rely on such measurements performed in the PLR-system for their HWC surveillance.

Hot heading of bolts, which can create a heat-affected zone between the head and shank, is another known adverse factor. Nevertheless, even if these metallurgical factors are optimized, immunity from cracking cannot be assured unless the stresses are maintained below the room temperature yield stress, which necessitates strictly controlled bolt loading procedures. There is also strong circumstantial evidence that superimposed fatigue stresses can lower the mean threshold stress for IGSCC even further.

When the Monte Carlo simulations are repeated many times, the dispersion in the resulting Weibull distribution of failure times is relatively small because the number of penetrations considered for each PWR plant series is quite large (over 1000). It can be shown that the progression of the problem for each design series of PWRs has relatively little inherent uncertainty. On the other hand, if the problem is considered on a plant by An overview of materials degradation 11 plant basis, then the statistical uncertainty in predictions of the proportion that will crack in a given operating time is much greater because there are less than a hundred CRDM penetrations per upper head.

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