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Extra resources for Cosmological Constant [lg artticle]
Since a universe with ΩΛ0 /ΩM0 ∼ 1 will have many more galaxies than one with ΩΛ0 /ΩM0 ∼ 100, it is quite conceivable that most observers will measure something close to the former value. The probability measure for observing a value of ρΛ can be decomposed as dP(ρΛ ) = ν(ρΛ )P∗(ρΛ )dρΛ , (61) where P∗ (ρΛ )dρΛ is the a priori probability measure (whatever that might mean) for ρΛ , and ν(ρΛ ) is the average number of galaxies which form at the specified value of ρΛ . Martel, Shapiro and Weinberg  have presented a calculation of ν(ρΛ ) using a spherical-collapse model.
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7). 04, so the majority of the matter content must be in an unknown non-baryonic form. Nobody would have guessed that we live in such a universe. Figure (11) is a plot of ΩΛ as a function of the scale factor a for this cosmology. At early times, the cosmological constant would have been negligible, while at later times the density of matter will be essentially zero and the universe will be empty. We happen to live in that brief era, cosmologically speaking, when both matter and vacuum are of comparable magnitude.